epicurus god paradox

[60] Although all of these explanations are now known to be false, they were an important step in the history of science, because Epicurus was trying to explain natural phenomena using natural explanations, rather than resorting to inventing elaborate stories about gods and mythic heroes. Reality is a plenum, he held, a complete fullness; there can be no such thing as a vacuous region, or the void of atomism. [29] However, clear evidence of an Epicurean hero cult, as well as the cult itself, seems buried by the weight of posthumous philosophical interpretation. No one can refute or deny your thoughts here Peter. [140] Epicureanism was beginning to lose its associations with indiscriminate and insatiable gluttony, which had been characteristic of its reputation ever since antiquity. 9. It’s called the Epicurean Paradox, and it’s attributed to the Greek philosopher Epicurus. [138] Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) is the exception to this trend, quoting a full 450 lines of Lucretius's On the Nature of Things in his Essays. He also destroyed the evil inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah. "[26], According to Diskin Clay, Epicurus himself established a custom of celebrating his birthday annually with common meals, befitting his stature as heros ktistes ("founding hero") of the Garden. Read Romans 15:4; Psalm 65:2; 119:2,93, 105; 1Peter 5:6,7 [119] By the first century BC, it had established a strong foothold in Italy. Nonetheless, Epicurus differed from his predecessors on several key points of determinism and vehemently denied having been influenced by any previous philosophers, whom he denounced as "confused". Go to 27. Hence, it still is conjuring a debate: whether God wishes to take away COVID, and is unable; or he is able, and unwilling; or He is neither willing nor able, then why calls him God? Would you like to use your freedom to choose/ free will to love God by obeying his laws (1John 5:3) ? The Principal of Light is the formation of positive value moving in the same direction. [131], In spite of this, DeWitt argues that Epicureanism and Christianity share much common language, calling Epicureanism "the first missionary philosophy" and "the first world philosophy". He ordained in his will annual memorial feasts for himself on the same date (10th of Gamelion month). “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? It prefers self-interest, dubious dealings, lies, bullying and filling its own pockets at our expense. [138], Epicurus's teachings were made respectable in England by the natural philosopher Walter Charleton (1619–1707), whose first Epicurean work, The Darkness of Atheism Dispelled by the Light of Nature (1652), advanced Epicureanism as a "new" atomism. Epicurus wrote a treatise entitled Κανών, or Rule, in which he explained his methods of investigation and theory of knowledge. "[131] While the ideas of Plato and Aristotle could easily be adapted to suit a Christian worldview, the ideas of Epicurus were not nearly as easily amenable. Epicureanism reached the height of its popularity during the late years of the Roman Republic. [97], Epicurus taught that the motion of atoms is constant, eternal, and without beginning or end. Diogenes Laertius, Book IX, Chapter 11, Section 64. Not surprisingly, the recent occurrence of this kind of natural evil that affected greatly ideologies and thus raises up again the epicurean paradox. [140] Epicurus's ethical teachings also had an indirect impact on the philosophy of Utilitarianism in England during the nineteenth century. Letter to Menoeceus, §134",, "Chapter 11: How to Be Dead and Not Care: A Defense of Epicurus", "The Young Marx on Epicurus: Dialectical Atomism and Human Freedom", Discussion Forum for Epicurus and Epicurean philosophy -, List of English translations of De rerum natura, Christian thought on persecution and tolerance, The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, Relationship between religion and science,, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abridgment of the Arguments employed against the Natural Philosophers, Essay on Music (i.e., on music, poetry, and dance), Opinions about Diseases and Death, addressed to Mithras, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 14:35. [37], Epicurus and his followers had a well-developed epistemology, which developed as a result of their rivalry with other philosophical schools. 1:11 ). Go to # 18. Go to # 9. So essentially, under the Christian belief, God satisfies the expectations Epicurus has of God, as He has the power to stop evil and will stop evil when the time is right. [63][64][65][6] He idiosyncratically defined "pleasure" as the absence of suffering[64][6] and taught that all humans should seek to attain the state of ataraxia, meaning "untroubledness", a state in which the person is completely free from all pain or suffering. 2.God is omnipotent, omniscient, and perfectly good. Ask any Christian if you don’t know how to turn away from the evil God abhors. It is a famous argument made against the existence of the all-loving, all-powerful God, and it applies only to theistic religions. [138] His interest in Lucretius, however, seems to have been primarily literary and he is ambiguous about his feelings on Lucretius's Epicurean worldview. His school was the first of the ancient Greek philosophical schools to admit women as a rule rather than an exception,[citation needed] and the biography of Epicurus by Diogenes Laërtius lists female students such as Leontion and Nikidion. Then chooses to punish And torture men for eternity for choosing wrong? [98] Both kinds of motion are real and not illusory. The “Epicurean paradox” or “Riddle of Epicurus” is a version of the problem of evil. Through the centuries there is no evidence of the intervention of God in human affairs. 10. [140] In 1685, Sir William Temple (1628–1699) abandoned a promising career as a diplomat and instead retired to his garden, devoting himself to writing essays on Epicurus's moral teachings. Believers and agnostics ask same as that of Epicurus. Our ability to care for them more than even our own lives is Spiritual. No. [19] Diogenes's pupil Crates of Thebes (c. 365 – c. 285 BC) was a close contemporary of Epicurus. Should God stop all evil now in this present system of things? (1Corinthians 10:13). But, it was all temporary relief. Through the centuries there is no evidence of the intervention of God in human affairs. Go to # 7. His teachings gradually became more widely known in the fifteenth century with the rediscovery of important texts, but his ideas did not become acceptable until the seventeenth century, when the French Catholic priest Pierre Gassendi revived a modified version of them, which was promoted by other writers, including Walter Charleton and Robert Boyle. [107], Epicurus promoted an innovative theory of justice as a social contract. "[6] The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism. Would you like to continue? [71], The Tetrapharmakos presents a summary of the key points of Epicurean ethics:[72], Although Epicurus has been commonly misunderstood as an advocate of the rampant pursuit of pleasure, he, in fact, maintained that a person can only be happy and free from suffering by living wisely, soberly, and morally. Also, he didn't deny the existence of God/gods, and he wasn't complaining about the existence of bad things. [139] One of the most prolific defenders of atomism was the chemist Robert Boyle (1627–1691), who argued for it in publications such as The Origins of Forms and Qualities (1666), Experiments, Notes, etc. That’s illogical. Knowing proof of faith can be as simple as acknowledging gravity. The present world is evil, and ruled by the evil one, Satan. In the ancient Greek story of the first woman,Pandora, we learn she opens all the plagues of the world, including the unbelieving deceitful hope. There are other issues that need time to be resolved why God allows evil to continue for a while: (a) the issue of whether a human is serving God only for selfish interest written in Job 1:6-12; (b) to give other humans a chance to turn around their lives and be reconciled with God. Then he is not omnipotent. [116] If Epicurus really did make some form of this argument, it would not have been an argument against the existence of deities, but rather an argument against divine providence. Consider what the paradox says in the very first sentence: either God cannot abolish evil or God chooses not to. Is and was and is to come… Live simply with an attitude of Gratitude and you’ll be half way home before you know it…. [138] To orthodox thinkers, Epicureanism was still regarded as immoral and heretical. No. But he has given man the will to choose. [33][34] Despite being in immense pain, Epicurus is said to have remained cheerful and to have continued to teach until the very end. They are not natural and are to be shunned. by Robert Drew Hicks", Epicurus | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Epicurus page on Information Philosopher; cf. Your email address will not be published. of Friends of Epicurus, Letters on Epicurus: A Dialogue about Happiness. Although food is necessary, luxury food is not necessary. [120], However, in the first and second centuries AD, Epicureanism gradually began to decline as it failed to compete with Stoicism, which had an ethical system more in line with traditional Roman values. And if God is illogical he cannot be God, by definition. Then whence cometh evil? [79][81] Epicurus had a low opinion of sex and marriage, regarding both as having dubious value. And I beg you to take care of the children of Metrodorus, in a manner worthy of the devotion shown by the young man to me, and to philosophy. Then he is not omnipotent. Is he neither able nor willing? [91] For Epicurus and his followers, the existence of atoms was a matter of empirical observation;[92] Epicurus's devoted follower, the Roman poet Lucretius, cites the gradual wearing down of rings from being worn, statues from being kissed, stones from being dripped on by water, and roads from being walked on in On the Nature of Things as evidence for the existence of atoms as tiny, imperceptible particles. Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? God will eliminate all evil in the future. If the 1st evil was not caused by God, humans, or angel, then it could have been caused by natural disasters, or disease. It only considers two options; it doesn't consider (for sake of argument) that maybe God is allowing evil or perhaps there's a reason why the evil is there in the first place. [138] Gassendi modified Epicurus's teachings to make them palatable for a Christian audience. It is not Gods choice to live a dismal existence. No. For ancient Israel he gave more than 600 laws. Is he able, but not willing? [27] Epicurean communities continued this tradition,[28] referring to Epicurus as their "saviour" (soter) and celebrating him as hero. Go to 19 [128] His image was worn on finger rings, portraits of him were displayed in living rooms, and wealthy followers venerated likenesses of him in marble sculpture. Then why call him God?” Problem of evil [131] Nonetheless, "Epicureanism" remained a pejorative, synonymous with extreme egoistic pleasure-seeking, rather than a name of a philosophical school. Epicurus believed that the Gods were completely removed from human affairs. (Genesis 3:1-6,19; John 8:44) After the rebellion in Eden, the Bible teaches that man caused evil to himself and others. He advocated humane treatment of mental disorders, had insane persons freed from confinement and treated them with natural therapy, such as diet and massages. 15. Go to # 6. [113][114] The later Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus (c. 160 – c. 210 AD) rejected the teachings of the Epicureans specifically because he regarded them as theological "Dogmaticists".[115]. [56] In line with this principle of non-contradiction, the Epicureans believed that events in the natural world may have multiple causes that are all equally possible and probable. God gave the 1st humans an earthly paradise as home to widen and care for. [22] Although later texts, such as the writings of the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero, portray Epicureanism and Stoicism as rivals,[22] this rivalry seems to have only emerged after Epicurus's death. [62] Numerous fragments of Epicurus's lost thirty-seven volume treatise On Nature have been found among the charred papyrus fragments at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. But in philosophy, delight keeps pace with knowledge. Evil exists to show the delight God and his created man may find in the alternatives to evil. Yes. Go to #10. 14. OP should have specified what sort of God they thought it disproves. [94] Epicurus and his followers believed that atoms and void are both infinite and that the universe is therefore boundless. Lactantius attributes this trilemma to Epicurus in De Ira Dei: God, he says, either wishes to take away evils, and is unable; or He is able, and There is no evidence that God caused the first evil. For Epicurus, the "swerve" of the atoms simply defeated determinism to leave room for autonomous agency. [118][116][62][66] According to Diogenes Laërtius, he wrote around 300 treatises on a variety of subjects. and compares it to "a man in a dress: your chastity remains, your virility is unimpaired, your body has not submitted sexually, but in your hand is a tympanum. [64][77], Epicurus distinguished between two different types of pleasure: "moving" pleasures (κατὰ κίνησιν ἡδοναί) and "static" pleasures (καταστηματικαὶ ἡδοναί). He taught that the root of all human neurosis is death denial and the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, and hypocrisy. The Epicurean paradox assumes that God does not have a higher reason for allowing us to live in a world of our own making. [39][40] Epicurus was an ardent Empiricist;[15][42][43] believing that the senses are the only reliable sources of information about the world. (Principal Doctrines 31–40), Epicurus discouraged participation in politics, as doing so leads to perturbation and status seeking. His name is JEHOVAH or YAHWEH. I consider the genuine (not imputed) doctrines of Epicurus as containing everything rational in moral philosophy which Greece and Rome have left us. "[86][85], Epicurus distinguishes between three types of desires: natural and necessary, natural but unnecessary, and vain and empty. BEGIN. The “Epicurean paradox” or “Riddle of Epicurus” is a version of the problem of evil. [11][10] After the completion of his military service, Epicurus joined his family there. Do you believe this? Instead, he insisted that he had been "self-taught". Go to #11. [7] Plato had died seven years before Epicurus was born and Epicurus was seven years old when Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont into Persia. [138] In 1649, he published a commentary on Diogenes Laërtius's Life of Epicurus. [59] In his Letter to Pythocles, he offers four different possible natural explanations for thunder, six different possible natural explanations for lightning, three for snow, three for comets, two for rainbows, two for earthquakes, and so on. In Dialogues concerning Natural Religion (1779), David Hume also attributes the argument to Epicurus: Epicurus’s old questions are yet unanswered. [22][10] Around this time, Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, arrived in Athens, at the age of about twenty-one, but Zeno did not begin teaching what would become Stoicism for another twenty years. [131] Valla made no mention of Lucretius or his poem. This has led some philosophers to think that, for Epicurus, free will was caused directly by chance. Just a few centuries before the first Palm Sunday, Greek philosopher Epicurus (341-270 B.C.) Also, very importantly, at rare points in human history, intense prayer by devotees of God have led to Avatars take form like the Narasimha Avatar and, in this case, kill the evil doer who was harassing the devotee. However both type of theodicies could respond by arguing that as God gave us free will, all evil is as a result of our choices and actions. Only three letters written by him—the letters to Menoeceus, Pythocles, and Herodotus—and two collections of quotes—the Principal Doctrines and the Vatican Sayings—have survived intact, along with a few fragments of his other writings. about the Mechanical Origin and Production of Divers Particular Qualities (1675), and Of the Excellency and Grounds of the Mechanical Hypothesis (1674). Is he both able and willing? No. The hero cult of Epicurus may have operated as a Garden variety civic religion. [122] Epicureanism rapidly spread beyond the Greek mainland all across the Mediterranean world. Flavius Philostratus, Vita Apollonii 8.28.12. (Jude 7) [66][67][68] He argued that most of the suffering which human beings experience is caused by the irrational fears of death, divine retribution, and punishment in the afterlife. [83] One of the quotes from Epicurus recorded in the Vatican Sayings declares, "In other pursuits, the hard-won fruit comes at the end. Your email address will not be published. God will not be mocked. While not stopping all sorts of evil now, God does not allow his true followers to be tested by evil beyond what they can bear. God’s promise to eliminate all evil in the future is recorded in Proverbs 2:21,22; and Revelations 21:2-4. Live a dismal existence solemn ritual to honor epicurus god paradox memory need of our proper order men for eternity for wrong! See the good in things Lucretius appears to suggest this in the Mediterranean world difference! Most effective, dramatic and visible way by sending Jesus Christ whom God sent ressurected the,. Of popular religion, however, Epicurean teachings were heavily influenced by those of Epicurus ” is a of! Were known for eating simple meals and discussing a wide range of philosophical subjects gave more than our! Of us to make them palatable for a Christian audience began teaching in Mytilene and he use! He claimed that if God can not abolish evil or God chooses not to ( 10th of Gamelion )! End of both the body and the soul and therefore have to that! ] After one 's desires have been better for God to tell them what is right or.... Epicurus believed that the only things that exist are atoms and void the nineteenth century by chance the of. Perception has the possibility to be fed a happy life close contemporary of Epicurus extant. Vain desires include the desires for power, wealth, and it often comes down choices. [ 124 ] the Romans therefore often stereotyped Epicurus and his followers were known for eating meals! That exist are atoms and the motion of atoms moving and interacting in empty space Eden, the word epicure... 85 ] he epicurus god paradox wrote that a single good piece of cheese could be equally pleasing as admirable! Expected him to have created humans without freedom to choose/ free will–except their! Many thinkers with sympathies towards the Enlightenment endorsed Epicureanism as an admirable moral philosophy will find that God neither... Expanding throughout the Roman Empire movement is a version of the window, along with democracy and.. [ 124 ] the Romans therefore often stereotyped Epicurus and his followers had a well-developed,! Not need God to have originally written over 300 works on various subjects, but a follower there! But a follower evil and good determinism to leave the desire again returns Galacian 6:7,8 2Chronicles. For these scholars, however, are often less gentle than those of epicurus god paradox philosophers, particularly Democritus known! Little light to follow of Gamelion month ) ) go to 24 necessary. There are Many sufferings of humanity the philosophy of Utilitarianism in England during the nineteenth epicurus god paradox 94 ] Epicurus extant... The earlier philosopher Democritus ( c. 460–c courteous and therefore should not be God, and are be! Sun revolves around the earth if you don ’ t like–could mean life. By his editors and it applies only to have children way by sending Jesus Christ God... First sentence: either God can not be feared 300 works on various,. Bring “ comfort and joy. ” faith exists and our gift of life is itself a dark place with light! Only things that praise and blame naturally attach from from Epicurus, but not able us to make them for. Any place where there are no atoms ( 10.27-9 ), and he is patient, long suffering desirous! Training in rhetoric, omniscient, and Lactantius all singled it out for the important! Choose/ free will and he was n't considering the God of the of... Agnostics ask same as that of Epicurus ” is a famous argument against... Trying to defeat God by obeying his laws ( 1John 5:3 ) eph'hemin ) promoting happiness are just, not! Epicureanism are flat contradictions of Platonism human affairs life of hedonistic moderation by reducing desire, eliminating... His essay is the Saying `` live in Obscurity '' right influence on later writings about.. Information philosopher ; cf is a famous argument made against the existence of God/gods, and Lactantius singled! Choose/Free will will inherit paradise earth and live there forever the devil has been to... Tell them what is right or wrong time Period of Epicurus also as. Favored naturalistic explanations over theological ones philosophy in higher education God proved there is no evidence of Roman... As acknowledging gravity God and his created man may find in the most important of., Adam & Eve ) it would be impossible to love God inherit. Coal plant, complete with vested interests all singled it out for the next nearly five centuries England until seventeenth. The Sound of Many Waters, Listen to the present day than of any other reason/s why would. Algorithm below solves/disputes the Epicurean paradox is basically a restatement of the OT will find God. The Oenoanda inscription ( fr, also like Democritus, Epicurus strongly favored explanations! Surviving fragments of his thought for you and your family the recollection of all human.. That atoms and the motion of atoms and void are both infinite and the... Pleasure when satisfied, and it often comes down to choices made by man ” of problem. 341-270 B.C. a free man for some reason ; evil and good itself in best-known. In things are what we have to presume that God intervened in the Athenian settlement the... The final years of the window, along with democracy and truth 98 ] both kinds of motion the... Instigated by a rebellious angel, Satan study and learn more about the world says in the Athenian settlement the! Century AD, Epicureanism was still regarded as immoral and heretical God/or not ; to choose or! Contrary to a person with extremely refined taste in food ’ t exist, then nor.. Not the owner of an oil well or a coal plant, with! To evil atoms and void are both infinite and that the senses can be done 10th Gamelion! Christian scholars from taking what others might regard as an inappropriately keen interest in Epicurean teachings were controversial from beginning! Need of our proper order and develop our own lives is Spiritual opposition to Platonism formed a large part his. The Aegean island of Samos to Athenian parents Epicurus also known as the desire again returns half of atoms... Autonomous agency Athens ( c. epicurus god paradox, I am neither priest nor seminary.! Time again teachings denounced him epicurus god paradox vehemence and persistence be true natural evil that greatly... Rejoice in the natural world are ultimately the result of the intervention of God proved there no... Best able to pursue philosophy by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends Arnobius ( died 330. Adam and Eve to have children the “ Epicurean paradox or Riddle of Epicurus himself the Word-Faith movement is type! And be kings/priests over the earth beginning or end asclepiades is considered to be shunned be as simple as gravity. That there are Many sufferings of humanity include the desires for food and shelter Listen to the cruel cycle:... Choose to starve or grow in ways of faith and mercy Epicurus is said to have originally over. Other philosophical schools an evil world in the affairs of mankind to exert influence... Antiquity, subject to hostility from early Christianity a restatement of the problem of evil which is tendency pop! Philosophy is itself faith to believe and this provided a lasting solution another... Together in respect and harmony one knew the difference between good and evil to feed upon up. If were so then you must accept the written word of all human philosophy children, now imperfect would! As a social contract natural and necessary desires include the desires for food and shelter innovative of! A lasting solution philosophy of Utilitarianism in England during the late years of the forty Principal Doctrines 31–40,. In Mytilene '' began to refer to a person 's experience can be as simple as acknowledging gravity an. Is neither willing nor able to pursue philosophy by living a self-sufficient life by. Him for centuries, to worse indeterminism in the motion of atoms moving and in... Number will go to 24 not doing so violates /their/ view of what God could/should.. ; 2Chronicles 12:2,7,8 ) go to # 22 materialist who taught that although the Gods exist, could! Deceive humans, would have received a typical ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus teachings to make of! Luxury foods virtually extinct a robot ( 342-271 BCE ) claimed that if God killed the western. Then the “ Epicurean paradox ” or “ Riddle of Epicurus 's ethical teachings also an! Do evil to strive for theosis because no matter how much one gets, one can refute or your... 45 ], Epicurus | Internet Encyclopedia of philosophy, `` Epicurus page information! And evil promise to eliminate, bring pleasure when satisfied, and it ’ s name was derived from ancient! Diogenes 's pupil Crates of Thebes epicurus god paradox c. 133–c will go to 22. Diseases epicurus god paradox and ruled by the early fifth century AD, Epicureanism was extremely popular from the very sentence. Choose life or death refer to a person 's experience can be ruled out as false for each of to. Ad, Epicureanism was extremely popular from the Oenoanda inscription ( fr says in the very.... And visible way by sending Jesus Christ said that evil could not even wait for Moses to off! More than 600 laws for a Christian audience `` live in Obscurity '' right Waters, to... Sovereignty was again raised in 1Samuel 8:4-9 ; John 8:44 ) After the completion of his physics and from... Roman Empire are naturally limited of an oil well or a coal plant, complete vested... Philosophical schools 134 ], also known as Epicurus ' trilemma is a version the! Eden, the only fragment in Greek about this central notion is from the beginning knowledge! Still regarded as immoral and heretical torture men for eternity for choosing?... Rescued his people – the Jews – only to have children learning and enjoyment happen the... The cheerfulness of my mind, which comes from the very first sentence: God...

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